The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is one of the primary causes of the greenhouse effect. CO2 emissions come from a variety of natural sources; however, human-related emissions are responsible for the increase of the atmospheric concentration of CO2 by 40% since the industrial revolution (from 280 ppm of CO2 in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015). Unless reverted, that trend poses a real threat to the environmental balance of the Earth: melting of glaciers, the rise of the sea level and coastal flooding, changes in precipitation, and acidification of oceans, which threaten numerous ecosystems. The main human activity that emits CO2 is the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) for energy, transportation, and the industry.
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