The aviation industry consumes about 1.5 billion barrels of jet fuel annually, producing around 2% of all human-induced carbon dioxide emissions (ATAG April 2014 figures). The quest to improve fuel efficiency has been high priority in the commercial aviation industry for decades, given its economic and environmental impact. In 2014, fuel expenses accounted for about 33% of the operating costs of airlines, in spite of jet airliners being over 70% more fuel efficient than the first jets of the 1960's. The efforts must continue, as CO2 emissions from aviation are expected to grow around 3% to 4% per year (ICAO estimates). Through IATA, Airlines have set a goal to further increase efficiency by at least 25% by 2025 (compared to 2005 levels). Fuel efficiency can be measured by the airplane's specific range: miles per gallon (typically a fraction). However, to compare airplanes of different sizes, one can use: seat miles per gallon of fuel.
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